By the time of the Civil War, Union cockades were nearly always red, white and blue. If you want all the back story on why, I wrote a blog post about it here. There were many designs including simple round rosettes, rosettes with tails, rosettes with tassels, or bows.
As you can see, center emblems could be military buttons, spangled stars, tassels, pictures of famous people...or nothing at all!
The materials used were usually silk ribbon sewn onto a buckram backing, but some were created from cotton or wool as well.
Union cockades were worn by men, women and children. They were often pinned to the breast or lapel, but could also be worn on hats and bonnets. For a more in-depth look at how men wore cockades, see here. For a detailed look at how women wore cockades, see here. For more info on children wearing cockades, click here.
If you'd like to purchase a Union cockade for yourself, check out the ready-to-ship ones in my Etsy shop or my Ecwid shop or contact me for a custom order!
You might also enjoy these posts:
The Complete Guide to Confederate Cockades
The Complete Guide to Mourning Cockades